AFINITOR® (everolimus) Tablets and AFINITOR DISPERZ® (everolimus tablets for oral suspension) are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to everolimus, to other rapamycin derivatives, or...
Mechanism of Action
AFINITOR Mechanism of Action (MOA)
AFINITOR® (everolimus) Tablets and AFINITOR DISPERZ® (everolimus tablets for oral suspension) targets mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) overactivation, a core issue in subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).1
NORMAL TSC GENE FUNCTION
- TSC1/TSC2, the hamartin/tuberin complex, is a protein complex produced by the genes TSC1 and TSC22
- In normal cells, the function of the TSC1/TSC2 complex is to inhibit mTOR—helping control the process of cell growth and proliferation3
LOSS OF TSC GENE FUNCTION
- In up to 85% of patients with TSC, the TSC1/TSC2 genes are lost or deactivated, leading to hyperactivation of mTOR4-6
- The result is dysregulated cell growth and uncontrolled cell proliferation, which may result in formation of benign hamartomas including SEGAs6,7
TREATMENT WITH AFINITOR
By inhibiting mTOR, AFINITOR and AFINITOR DISPERZ block the effects caused by the loss of the TSC1/TSC2 genes and reduce cell growth, proliferation, and angiogenesis8*
*As observed in in vitro and/or in vivo studies.
Curatolo P. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in tuberous sclerosis complex-associated epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2015;52(3):281-289.
Curatolo P, Bombardieri R, Jozwiak S. Tuberous sclerosis. Lancet. 2008;372(9639):657-668.
Crino PB, Nathanson KL, Henske EP. The tuberous sclerosis complex. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1345-1356.
Dabora SL, Jozwiak S, Franz DN, et al. Mutational analysis in a cohort of 224 tuberous sclerosis patients indicates increased severity of TSC2, compared with TSC1, disease in multiple organs. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68(1):64-80.
Sancak O, Nellist M, Goedbloed M, et al. Multinational analysis of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes in a diagnostic setting: genotype-phenotype correlations and comparison of diagnostic DNA techniques in tuberous sclerosis complex. Eur J Hum Genet. 2005;13(6):731-741.
Yang Q, Guan K-L. Expanding mTOR signaling. Cell Res. 2007;17(8):666-681.
Cheadle JP, Reeve MP, Sampson JR, Kwiatkowski DJ. Molecular genetic advances in tuberous sclerosis. Hum Genet. 2000;107(2):97-114.
Afinitor [prescribing information]. East Hanover, NJ: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp; 2021.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
AFINITOR® (everolimus) Tablets and AFINITOR DISPERZ® (everolimus tablets for oral suspension) are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to everolimus, to other rapamycin derivatives, or to any of the excipients.
Noninfectious Pneumonitis: Noninfectious pneumonitis was reported in up to 19% of patients treated with AFINITOR; some cases were reported with pulmonary hypertension (including pulmonary arterial hypertension) as a secondary event. The incidence of grade 3 and 4 noninfectious pneumonitis was up to 4% and up to 0.2%, respectively. Fatal outcomes have been observed. Monitor for clinical symptoms or radiological changes. Consider opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) in the differential diagnosis. For grade 2 to 4 noninfectious pneumonitis, withhold or permanently discontinue based on severity. Corticosteroids may be indicated until clinical symptoms resolve. Administer prophylaxis for PJP when concomitant use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents are required. The development of pneumonitis has been reported even at a reduced dose.
Infections: AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ has immunosuppressive properties and may predispose patients to bacterial, fungal, viral, or protozoal infections, including those with opportunistic pathogens. Localized and systemic infections, including pneumonia, mycobacterial infections, other bacterial infections; invasive fungal infections, such as aspergillosis, candidiasis, or PJP; and viral infections, including reactivation of hepatitis B virus, have occurred. Some of these infections have been severe (eg, sepsis, septic shock, or resulting in multisystem organ failure) or fatal. The incidence of grade 3 and 4 infections was up to 10% and up to 3%, respectively. The incidence of serious infections was reported at a higher frequency in patients <6 years of age. Complete treatment of preexisting invasive fungal infections prior to starting treatment. Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection. Withhold or permanently discontinue AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ based on severity of infection. Administer prophylaxis for PJP when concomitant use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents are required.
Severe Hypersensitivity Reactions: Hypersensitivity reactions to AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ have been observed and include anaphylaxis, dyspnea, flushing, chest pain, and angioedema (eg, swelling of the airways or tongue, with or without respiratory impairment). The incidence of grade 3 hypersensitivity reactions was up to 1%. Permanently discontinue AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ for the development of clinically significant hypersensitivity.
Angioedema With Concomitant Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors: Patients taking concomitant ACE inhibitors with AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ may be at increased risk for angioedema (eg, swelling of the airways or tongue, with or without respiratory impairment). In a pooled analysis of randomized, double-blind, oncology clinical trials, the incidence of angioedema in patients taking AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ with an ACE inhibitor was 6.8% compared to 1.3% in the control arm with an ACE inhibitor. Permanently discontinue AFINITOR for angioedema.
Stomatitis: Stomatitis, including mouth ulcers and oral mucositis, has occurred in patients treated with AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ at an incidence ranging from 44% to 78% across the clinical trial experience. Grade 3/4 stomatitis was reported in 4% to 9% of patients. Stomatitis most often occurs within the first 8 weeks of treatment. When starting AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ, initiating dexamethasone alcohol-free oral solution as a swish-and-spit mouthwash reduces the incidence and severity of stomatitis. If stomatitis does occur, mouthwashes and/or other topical treatments are recommended, but alcohol-, hydrogen peroxide-, iodine-, or thyme-containing products should be avoided. Antifungal agents should not be used unless fungal infection has been diagnosed.
Renal Failure: Cases of renal failure (including acute renal failure), some with a fatal outcome, have occurred in patients taking AFINITOR. Elevations of serum creatinine and proteinuria have been reported in patients taking AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ. The incidence of grade 3 and 4 elevations of serum creatinine was up to 2% and up to 1%, respectively. The incidence of grade 3 and 4 proteinuria was up to 1% and up to 0.5%, respectively. Monitor renal function prior to starting AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ and annually thereafter. Monitor renal function at least every 6 months in patients who have additional risk factors for renal failure.
Risk of Impaired Wound Healing: Impaired wound healing can occur in patients who receive drugs that inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. Therefore, AFINITOR DISPERZ has the potential to adversely affect wound healing. Withhold AFINITOR DISPERZ for at least 1 week prior to elective surgery. Do not administer for at least 2 weeks following major surgery and until adequate wound healing occurs. The safety of resuming treatment upon resolution of wound healing complications has not been established.
Metabolic Disorders: Hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia have been reported in patients taking AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ at an incidence up to 75%, 86%, and 73%, respectively. The incidence of these grade 3 and 4 laboratory abnormalities was up to 15% and up to 0.4%, respectively. In nondiabetic patients, monitor fasting serum glucose prior to starting AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ and annually thereafter. In diabetic patients, monitor fasting serum glucose more frequently as clinically indicated. Monitor lipid profile prior to starting AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ and once yearly thereafter. When possible, achieve optimal glucose and lipid control prior to starting AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ. For grade 3 to 4 metabolic events, withhold or permanently discontinue AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ based on severity.
Myelosuppression: Anemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported in patients taking AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ. The incidence of these grade 3 and 4 laboratory abnormalities was up to 16% and up to 2%, respectively. Monitor complete blood count prior to starting AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ, every 6 months for the first year of treatment, and annually thereafter. Withhold or permanently discontinue AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ based on severity.
Risk of Infection or Reduced Immune Response With Vaccinations: The safety of immunization with live vaccines during AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ therapy has not been studied. Due to the potential increased risk of infection and/or reduced immune response to the vaccine, avoid the use of live vaccines and close contact with individuals who have received live vaccines during treatment with AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ. Due to the potential increased risk of infection or reduced immune response with vaccination, complete the recommended childhood series of live vaccinations according to American Council on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines prior to the start of therapy. An accelerated vaccination schedule may be appropriate.
Radiation Sensitization and Radiation Recall: Radiation sensitization and recall, in some cases severe, involving cutaneous and visceral organs (including radiation esophagitis and pneumonitis) have been reported in patients treated with radiation before, during, or after AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ treatment. Monitor patients closely when administering AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ during, or sequentially with, radiation treatment.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on animal studies and the mechanism of action, AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In animal studies, everolimus caused embryo-fetal toxicities in rats when administered during the period of organogenesis at maternal exposures that were lower than human exposures at the clinical dose of 10 mg once daily. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise female patients of reproductive potential to avoid becoming pregnant and to use effective contraception during treatment with AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ and for 8 weeks after the last dose. Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with AFINITOR/AFINITOR DISPERZ and for 4 weeks after the last dose.
Adverse Reactions: The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥30%, all grades) were stomatitis (62%) and respiratory tract infection (31%). The most common grade 3/4 adverse reactions (incidence ≥2%) were stomatitis, pyrexia, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, aggression, agitation, and amenorrhea. Updated safety information from 111 patients treated with AFINITOR for a median duration of 47 months identified the following additional notable adverse reactions: decreased appetite (14%), hypertension (11%), urinary tract infection (9%), cellulitis (6%), abdominal pain (5%), and decreased weight (5%).
Laboratory Abnormalities: The most common key laboratory abnormalities (incidence ≥50%, all grades) were hypercholesterolemia (81%) and elevated partial thromboplastin time (72%). The most common grade 3/4 laboratory abnormality (incidence ≥3%) was neutropenia (9%). Updated safety information from 111 patients treated with AFINITOR for a median duration of 47 months identified the following additional key laboratory abnormalities: hyperglycemia (13%), decreased fibrinogen (8%), elevated creatinine (5%), and azoospermia (1%).
Please see full Prescribing Information.
AFINITOR and AFINITOR DISPERZ are indicated in adult and pediatric patients 1 year and older with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) that requires therapeutic intervention but cannot be curatively resected.